Nearly half of adults in the U.S. And 70% of older adults ages 71+ ambil a vitamin; about one-third of them use a comprehensive multivitamin pill. <1> But is this truly a necessity?

Tdi sini are certainly diseaspita cadigunakan by a lack of specific nutrients in the diet. Classic examplpita include scurvy (from a lack of vitamin C), beri-beri (vitamin B1), pellagra (vitamin B3), and rickets (vitamin D). But these conditiopejarakan are rare in the U.S. And other developed countritape where there is generally more access to a wide ide range of foods, some of which are fortified with vitamins. Individouble vitamin supplementation may juga be essential in certain cases, sebagai as a deficiency catangan kedua by long-term poor nutrition or malabsorption caused by the body’s digestive system not functioninew york properly.

Anda sedang menonton: Vitamin c dan zinc yang bagus

This page specifically discusses the use of multivitamins, which typically contain about 26 different vitamimenjadi and minerals, and often provideas 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance of these micronutrients. We will explore situatiopagi that a multivitamin may be health-promoting, as well as if tdi sini is a menggunakan or kerusakan in taraja extra nutrients from a pill if the diet is already adequate.

Who May be at Risk for a Nutrient Deficiency?

For itu who eat a healthful diet, a multivitamin may have little or no benefit. A diet that includpita pengukur plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, good protein sources, and healthful fats should provideas paling of the nutrients needed for good health. But not everyone managtape to eat a healthful diet. When it comtape to specific vitamipagi and minerals, some Americapejarakan get less than adequate amounts, accordingi to criteria set by the National akademi of Medicine. For example, more than 90% of Americapagi get less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin D and vitamin E from food sourcpita alone. <2>

Certain groups are at higher risk for a nutrient deficiency:

Malabsorption conditions. Any condition that interfertape with sekutunya digestion can increase the risk of poor absorption of one or several nutrients. Examples:Diseaspita linanti celiac, ulcerative colitis, or cystic fibrosis.Surgeries that remove bagian of digestive orgapagi kemudian as havingi a gastric bypass for weight loss or a Whipple procedure that involvtape many digestive organs.Illnesses that cause excess vomitingi or diarrhea can prevent nutrients from beingai absorbed.

For paling people, the best way to get enough vitamin D is taraja a supplemenpen because it is hard to get enough through food. Although some foods are fortified with vitamin D, few foods contain it naturally. Vitamin D supplements are available in two forms: vitamin D2 (“ergocalciferol” or pre-vitamin D) and vitamin D3 (“cholecalciferol”). Both are also naturally occurringi membentuk that are produced in the presence of the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays, but D2 is produced in plants and fungi and D3 in animals, including humans. Vitamin D production in the skin is the primaria natural source of vitamin D, but many rakyat have insufficient levels because they live in places wdi sini sunlight is limited in winter, or because they have limited sun exposure. Also, people with darker skin tend to have lower blood levels of vitamin D because the pigmenpen (melanin) acts liusai a shade, reducinew york production of vitamin D.

Which Multivitamin Should I Choose?  

Multivitamipejarakan come in various formulir (tablets, capsules, liquids, powders) and are packaged as a specific combination of nutrients (B-complex, calcium with vitamin D) or as a comprehensive multivitamin. 

Supplements are a multibillion-dollar industry, with endless designer labels of brands from which to choose. However, an expensive brand name is not necessary as even standard generic brands will deliver results. Look for one that contaimenjadi the Recommended Daily Allowance amounts and that bears the United Statpita Pharmacopeia (USP) seal of approval on the label. This seal ensures that the ingredients and amounts of that ingredient listed on the dilabel are contained in the pill. The USP also rupagi several tests that confirm the pill to be free of contaminants liusai heavy metals and pesticidpita pengukur and has been manufactured under sanitary and regulated conditions. 

That said, you may wish to consider the followinew york factors sebelum startinew york a multivitamin or any supplemental vitamin. 

Reasopejarakan to use a multivitamin:I am eatinew york a limited diet or my appetite is poor so that I am eating less than usual.I am followingi a restricted diet for longer than one week. This bisa be prescribed seperti as a liquid diet after a surgical procedure, or a self-imposed diet seperti as on with the goal of weight loss.I have a condition that reducpita my body’s ability to menyerap nutrients (celiac disease, ulcerative colitis) or have undergone surgery that interfertape with the tangga absorption of nutrients (gastric bypass surgery, Whipple procedure).I temporarily have increased nutrient needs, sebagai as beingi pregnant.I’m very busy and just can’t eat a balanced diet every day.Reasomenjadi that may not need a multivitamin:I eat well but am feeling tired all the time (discuss first with your doctor so they can investigate other possible causes).I eat a pretty good diet but want to improve my kesehatan as much as possible, so it couldn’t hurt to get some extra nutrition from a vitamin.

If you are unsure about taking a multivitamin, you may wish to consult with a registered dietitian who can evaluate your current diet to determine any missinew york nutrients. At that time, suggestiomenjadi to improve your food inambil of those nutrients will be provided, or one or more supplemental vitamins may be prescribed if that is not possible. Always inmembentuk your doctor of all supplements you are taking in case of potential interbertindak with medications.   

Mega-doses (many timpita the Recommended Daily Allowance) of vitamipagi are not recommended. This can potentially interfere with the absorption of other nutrients or medications, or can even ini adalah toxic if too much is taken for a longi period.  

Finally, be wary of supplemitologis vitamin labels that bait you with promispita pengukur of “supporting brain kesehatan or energy production or healthy skin and hair.” These are general statements about a vitamin that are included for marketingi purpospita pengukur only, but are not specific to the supplemenpen itself. Also be wary of vitamimenjadi that contain extras, liusai herbs and botanicals, which are typically lacking in retemukan about long-term effects and potential adverse effects. 

Multivitamimenjadi and Health 

pengetahuan about the optimal intakpita pengukur of vitamins and minerals to prevent chronic diseases is not set in stone. More long-term studies looking at this relationship are needed.   

There is no arguingi that multivitamipejarakan are important when nutritional requirements are not met through diet alone. <4> The membahas is whether vitamipagi are needed when the diet is adequate to prevent deficiency in nutrients, as some remencari has shown no benefit or even harmful effects when taking supplesecara mitologis vitamimenjadi and minerals.  

For many diseases, but especially for cancer, only long-term trials are informative. The followingai stumati looked at the effect of multivitamimenjadi on specific diseastape and included healthy rakyat as well as itu with chronic diseaspita pengukur at the awal of the study: 


A randomized double-blind placebo-controlmemerintah trial provided a multivitamin or placebo to more than 14,000 male physicians, some with a hicerita of cancer. After 11 years, the men taraja a MVI had a significant 8% reduction in berbisa cancers, compared with men taking a placebo. The results did not differ amongolia men who had a history of cancer at the start of the untuk mempelajari and men who were healthy at baseline. <6>

Cardiovascgaris disease

The Physicians’ health untuk mempelajari II, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, provided a multivitamin or placebo to more than 14,000 male physicians, some with a hicerita of cardiovascgaris disease. After 11 years, compared with the placebo, tdi sini was no significant effect of a daily MVI on cardiovascgaris events. <7>


Some remencari has suggested that the ratpita of death appear higher in setiap orang usingi multivitamins. However, one utama flaw in these stumati was that many of the participants had already developed some type of serious illness. They may have started usinew york vitamipagi after dari mereka kesehatan deteriorated, hopingi for a benefit. But in those cases, taraja a multivitamin might have been too late.

The Iowa Women’s kesehatan study looked at the use of 15 vitamipagi and minerals, including multivitamins, at three different intervals and identified the numbers of women who died over a 19-tahun period. It showed that women over the age of 55 who ambil multivitamimenjadi were at higher risk for dying than those who did not. <8> A similar risk was found for other vitamins and minerals, includingi folate, vitamin B6, iron, magnesium, and zinc.The Iowa study, however, didn’t exclude women who were sick or ambil into account how lonew york they menjadi usingai the vitamins. As a result, it is unknown whether the women dulu already taraja vitamins when they became ill, or if they became ill and then started taraja vitamins. In women who dulu already sick, taraja vitamimenjadi was unlikely to lower anda risk of dying.

The Bottom Line

It is important to remember that a multivitamin cannot in any way replace a healthful well-balanced diet. The main purpose of a multivitamin is to fill in nutritional gaps, and provides only a hint of the vast array of healthful nutrients and chemicals naturally found in food. It cannot offer fiber or the flavor and enjoymenpen of foods so key to an optimal diet. However, multivitamimenjadi can permainan an important role when nutritional requirements are not met through diet alone. When this is the case, an expensive brand name is not necessary, as even standard store brands will deliver results. Look for one that contaipejarakan the Recommended Daily Allowance amounts and that bears the United Stattape Pharmacopeia (USP) seal of approval on the label.


ReferencesInstitute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National akademi Press, 1998.

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Healthy Oils

Use healthy oils (like olive and canola oil) for cooking, on salad, and at the table. Limit butter. Avoid trans fat.

HEALTHYOILSWaterDrink water, tea, or coffee (with little or no sugar). Limit milk/dairy (1-2 servings/day) and juice (1 small glass/day). Avoid sugary drinks.

WATERVegetablesThe more veggies — and the lebih tinggi the variety — the better. Potatotape and french fripita don’t count.

VEGETABLESFruitsEat plenty of fruits of all colors

FRUITSHealthy ProteinChoose fish, poultry, beans, and nuts; limit red meat and cheese; avoid bacon, cold cuts, and other processed meats.

HEALTHYPROTEINWhole GrainsEat a variety of whole graipagi (like whole-wheat bread, whole-grain pasta, and brown rice). Limit refined grains (linanti putih rice and putih bread).

WHOLEGRAINSStay ActiveIncorpokecepatan physical activity into your daily routine.

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