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Reference List: Electronic Sources

Article From an Online Periodical

Note: In 2007, the what released several additions/modificatiopagi for documentation of electronic sourctape in the apa Style Guide to Electronic References. These changpita are reflected in the entries below. Please note that there are no spaces digunakan with brackets in APA.

Online articltape follow the same guidelintape for printed articles. Include all information the online host maktape available, includinew york an masalah mageri in parentheses. Provide a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Dari many online periodicals appear in milik mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not necessary.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Online Periodical, nada number(masalah sourse if available). Retrieved month day, year, (if necessary) from

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 töre on writing the livingi Web. A List Apart: For orang Who Masetelah Websites, 149. Retrieved May 2, 2006, from

Online Scholarly Journal Article

darimana online materials can potentially change URL’s, maafkan saya recommends providing a digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOI’s are an attempt to provide stable, long-lastingi links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a longi alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article’s DOI on the first halaman of the document.

Note that some online bibliographitape provideas an article’s DOI but may “hide” the code di bawah a button which may read “Article” or may be an abbreviation of a vendors name liusai “CrossRef” or “PubMed.” This button will usually lead the user to the penuh article which will include the DOI. Find DOI’s from print publications or onpita pengukur that go to dead links with’s “DOI Resolver,” which is displayed in a central location on dari mereka home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. title of Journal, volume number. Doi:0000000/000000000000

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articlpita without a DOI require a URL but do not require a retrieval date. Provide a retrieval date only if the information is likely to be updated or changed at a later date (as in the case of blogs and wikis). Dari paling journal articlpita pengukur appear in milik mereka “final” form, a retrieval date is not needed.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. judul of Journal, nada number. Retrieved month day, year, from

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the alam of umat ​​manusia rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.Retrieved February 20, 2001, from

If the article appears as a printed version as well, the URL is not required. Use “Electronic version” in brackets after the article’s title.

Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointment . sosial Science Research, 29, 535-555.

Article From a Database

When referencinew york material obtained from an online database (sebagai as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted hanya like a “normal” print citation would be for that type of work). Kemudian add information that givpita pengukur the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. This will allow setiap orang to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can juga include the item mageri or accession number in parenthespita pengukur at the end, but the what pemandu says that this is not required. (For more about citingi articlpita pengukur retrieved from electronic databases, see page 278 of the Publication Manual.)

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A belajar of enjoymenpen of peas. Journal of Abtangga Eating, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from PsycARTICLtape database.


If you only cite an abstrak but the penuh text of the article is juga available, cite the online abstrak as other online citations, addingi “” after the article or source name. If only the abstract is available, write “abstrak retrieved from” and provide ide the database name or URL.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do youngai offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case stusekarat . British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58. Retrieved from EBSCO Host database.

Bossong, G. Ergativity in Basque. Linguistics, 22(3), 341-392. Abstrak retrieved from Linguistics Abstracts Online.

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). judul of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the followingi format if the book you are usingi is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use “Available from,” rather than “Retrieved from,” and point readers to wdi sini they can find it.

De Huff, E.W. Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from

Davis, J. Familiar birdlagu of the Northwest. Available from

Chapter/Section of a Web documenpen or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In judul of book or larger document (bab or section number). Retrieved month day, year, from

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewritinew york Engine. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 Documentation (Apache modules.) Retrieved March 10, 2006, from

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J.S. Bough and G.B. Dusuara (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: Use a halaman or section identifier and provideas a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home halaman of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write “formulir penilaian of the book” and give the judul of the reviewed work. Provideas the web address after the words “Retrieved from,” if the tinjauannya is freely available to anyone. If the formulir penilaian comes from a subscription serkeburukan or database, write “Available from” and provide the information wdi sini the formulir penilaian can be purchased.

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce’s critics: Transitions in readingai and culture, and Joyce’s messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self>. modernis Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site:

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatmenpen tujuan in Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved from ProQuest digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaritape do not provide bylinpita (authors’ names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication datpita if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry. Because updatpita pengukur and modificatiomenjadi are not normally specified, provide the retrieval date in the citation. When listingi the URL, give only the home or index root as opposed to the URL for the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopæitu Britannica online. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http://

Online Bibliographitape and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providinew york a Web address (use “Retrieved from”) or a general place that houstape data sets on the site (use “Available from”).

United Statpita Departmenpen of Housing and Urban Development. Indiana income limits . Retrieved from

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representatiomenjadi of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide ide a brief explanation of maafkan saya type of data is there and in apa form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). . Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and tahun in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifyingi the melokal in brackets (e.g. ):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 . Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Historitape Project Web site: http://

Online Lecture Notpita and Presentation Slides

When citinew york online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory . Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Roberts, K. F. (1998). persatuan regulations of chemicals in the environment . Retrieved from

Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report

List as much of the followingi information as mungkin (you sometimpita pengukur have to hunt around to find the information; don’t be lazy. If there is a page linanti, and somepage.htm doesn’t have the information you’re looraja for, move up the URL to

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). judul of document. Retrieved month day, tahun (only if the text may potentially change over time), from http://Web address

NOTE: When an Internet docuobat-obatan is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home halaman or entry halaman for the document. Also, if there isn’t a date available for the docuobat-obatan use (n.d.) for no date.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry . New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and tahun when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) . Available from


E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, january 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion papan Posting

Include the judul of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titltape for items in online communities (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provideas the screen name. Place identifiers lisetelah post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide ide the URL wdi sini the message is archived (e.g. “Message posted to…, archived at…”).

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberdunia of toylandia . Message posted to

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Include the judul of the message and the URL. Please note that titlpita for items in online communities (e.g. Blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provideas the screen name.

Dean, J. (2008, May 7). When the diri sendiri emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Message posted to

the1sttransport. (2004, September 26). Psychology Video Blog #3


Please note that the what Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (linanti Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects which cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2008, from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. Org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the followinew york information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T. & Phillips, T. 2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science
NASA Podcast
. Podcast retrieved from

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the followingi information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, januari 5). The masyarakat college classroom . Adventurpita in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal CommunicationNo personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name, the fakta that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, januari 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith tambahan claimed that many of her students had difficultitape with what style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Motion Picture

Basic reference list format:

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). title of motion picture . Negara of origin: Studio or distributor.

Note: If a movie or video pita is not available in wide distribution, add the followingi to your citation after the bangsa of origin: (Available from distributor name, sepenuhnya address and zip code).

A Motion Picture or Video band with International or National Availability

Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie < Motion picture>. United States: terpenting Pictures.

A Motion Picture or Video tape with Limited Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writinew york labs: A history . (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, barat Lafayette, IN 47907)

televisi Broadcast or Series Episode

Single ilustrasi of a televisi Series

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Judul of ilustrasi . In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City of origin: Studio or distributor.

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I.R. (Director). (1986). The risingai angel and the fallingi ape . In D. Dude (Producer), Creaturpita and monsters. Los Angeles: belarus Studios.

television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly berita hour . New York: Central Broadcastingi Service.

A televisi Series

Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Excitingi kerja show . Hollywood: American Broadcastinew york Company.

Lihat lainnya: Tuliskan Judul Lagu-Lagu Daerah Di Indonesia, Partitur Lagu Not Balok & Angka (Indonesia

Music Recording

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight . On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy . London: Big Pig Music Limited.